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History, ethnicity, heritage, landmarks, vintage (4 Records)
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History, ethnicity, heritage, landmarks, vintage
  Article V of the US Constitution #RAWHMBTV.19390 Exp 12-31
The federal government is broken. Career politicians in Washington will never limit their own power.

Our Founding Fathers entrusted us -- the American people -- with authority to call a Convention of States to propose amendments to limit federal power.

The U.S. Constitution dictates  everything not specifically designated to the federal government should be entrusted to the states.

That's not what’s happening today. Most states only control 40% of issues pertaining to their own money -- unelected bureaucrats decide the rest.

Sixty percent of the time… someone sitting in an office on the other side of the country… who was never even elected… makes decisions that directly impact your life.

Mark Levin says, "Today the federal government is the nation's largest creditor, lender, employer, consumer, grantor, property owner, tenant, insurer, healthcare provider, and pension guarantor: Does that sound like limited government to you?"

The Founders left a solution as big as the problem.

Now it's time to use the power entrusted to the states in Article V, to propose amendments to limit the power and jurisdiction of the federal government, impose fiscal restraints, and place term limits on Congress, staffers, and bureaucrats.

Mark Meckler comment, “This is the battle of our generation.”

It only takes 34 states to make it happen, and twelve are already onboard. We're closing in on victory. Find out more, click the video button. You can skip the ad in 3 seconds.

To contribute, click the website link.

    Convention Of States Action
        5850 San Felipe, Suite 580A, Houston TX 77057
            Website:  secure.anedot.com/convention-of-states-action-cosaction/levindonate
Bugle calls #CUL.13498 Exp 09-26
            Website:  bands.army.mil/music/bugle/
What was the most inaccurate thing you were taught by a history teacher? #EZ.36996 Exp 12-31
Angela V. Woodhull, Ph.D., author of Coping With Difficult Teachers

It’s what they DIDN’T teach us that is most shocking.

It’s what they left out and omitted.

For instance, I was completely shocked and surprised, as an adult, to learn about the Trail of Tears.

At the beginning of the 1830s, nearly 125,000 Native Americans lived on millions of acres of land in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina and Florida–land their ancestors had occupied and cultivated for generations. By the end of the decade, very few natives remained anywhere in the southeastern United States. Working on behalf of white settlers who wanted to grow cotton on the Indians’ land, the federal government forced them to leave their homelands and walk thousands of miles to a specially designated “Indian territory” across the Mississippi River. This difficult and sometimes deadly journey is known as the Trail of Tears.

White Americans, particularly those who lived on the western frontier, often feared and resented the Native Americans they encountered: To them, American Indians seemed to be an unfamiliar, alien people who occupied land that white settlers wanted (and believed they deserved). Some officials in the early years of the American republic, such as President George Washington, believed that the best way to solve this “Indian problem” was simply to “civilize” the Native Americans. The goal of this civilization campaign was to make Native Americans as much like white Americans as possible by encouraging them convert to Christianity, learn to speak and read English, and adopt European-style economic practices such as the individual ownership of land and other property (including, in some instances in the South, African slaves). In the southeastern United States, many Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Creek and Cherokee people embraced these customs and became known as the “Five Civilized Tribes.”

Did You Know?
Indian removal took place in the Northern states as well. In Illinois and Wisconsin, for example, the bloody Black Hawk War in 1832 opened to white settlement millions of acres of land that had belonged to the Sauk, Fox and other native nations.

But their land, located in parts of Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, Florida and Tennessee, was valuable, and it grew to be more coveted as white settlers flooded the region. Many of these whites yearned to make their fortunes by growing cotton, and they did not care how “civilized” their native neighbors were: They wanted that land and they would do almost anything to get it. They stole livestock; burned and looted houses and towns;, and squatted on land that did not belong to them.

State governments joined in this effort to drive Native Americans out of the South. Several states passed laws limiting Native American sovereignty and rights and encroaching on their territory. In a few cases, such as Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the U.S. Supreme Court objected to these practices and affirmed that native nations were sovereign nations “in which the laws of Georgia [and other states] can have no force.” Even so, the maltreatment continued. As President Andrew Jackson noted in 1832, if no one intended to enforce the Supreme Court’s rulings (which he certainly did not), then the decisions would “[fall]…still born.” Southern states were determined to take ownership of Indian lands and would go to great lengths to secure this territory.

Andrew Jackson had long been an advocate of what he called “Indian removal.” As an Army general, he had spent years leading brutal campaigns against the Creeks in Georgia and Alabama and the Seminoles in Florida–campaigns that resulted in the transfer of hundreds of thousands of acres of land from Indian nations to white farmers. As president, he continued this crusade. In 1830, he signed the Indian Removal Act, which gave the federal government the power to exchange Native-held land in the cotton kingdom east of the Mississippi for land to the west, in the “Indian colonization zone” that the United States had acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase. (This “Indian territory” was located in present-day Oklahoma.)

The law required the government to negotiate removal treaties fairly, voluntarily and peacefully: It did not permit the president or anyone else to coerce Native nations into giving up their land. However, President Jackson and his government frequently ignored the letter of the law and forced Native Americans to vacate lands they had lived on for generations. In the winter of 1831, under threat of invasion by the U.S. Army, the Choctaw became the first nation to be expelled from its land altogether. They made the journey to Indian territory on foot (some “bound in chains and marched double file,” one historian writes) and without any food, supplies or other help from the government. Thousands of people died along the way. It was, one Choctaw leader told an Alabama newspaper, a “trail of tears and death.”

The Indian-removal process continued. In 1836, the federal government drove the Creeks from their land for the last time: 3,500 of the 15,000 Creeks who set out for Oklahoma did not survive the trip.

The Cherokee people were divided: What was the best way to handle the government’s determination to get its hands on their territory? Some wanted to stay and fight. Others thought it was more pragmatic to agree to leave in exchange for money and other concessions. In 1835, a few self-appointed representatives of the Cherokee nation negotiated the Treaty of New Echota, which traded all Cherokee land east of the Mississippi for $5 million, relocation assistance and compensation for lost property. To the federal government, the treaty was a done deal, but many of the Cherokee felt betrayed: After all, the negotiators did not represent the tribal government or anyone else. “The instrument in question is not the act of our nation,” wrote the nation’s principal chief, John Ross, in a letter to the U.S. Senate protesting the treaty. “We are not parties to its covenants; it has not received the sanction of our people.” Nearly 16,000 Cherokees signed Ross’s petition, but Congress approved the treaty anyway.

By 1838, only about 2,000 Cherokees had left their Georgia homeland for Indian territory. President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott and 7,000 soldiers to expedite the removal process. Scott and his troops forced the Cherokee into stockades at bayonet point while whites looted their homes and belongings. Then, they marched the Indians more than 1,200 miles to Indian territory. Whooping cough, typhus, dysentery, cholera and starvation were epidemic along the way, and historians estimate that more than 5,000 Cherokee died as a result of the journey.

By 1840, tens of thousands of Native Americans had been driven off of their land in the southeastern states and forced to move across the Mississippi to Indian territory. The federal government promised that their new land would remain unmolested forever, but as the line of white settlement pushed westward, “Indian country” shrank and shrank. In 1907, Oklahoma became a state and Indian territory was gone for good.

Article Details:Trail of Tears
Author: History.com Staff
Website Name: History.com
Year Published: 2009
Title: Trail of Tears
Publisher: A+E Networks

            Website:  www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/trail-of-tears
            Contact:  Angela V. Woodhull, Ph.D., author of Coping With Difficult Teachers  
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            Contact:  Sharon Guingrich   Email:  sharon2k@hotmail.com